Why Philip K. Dick thought Turing didn’t go far enough:

“For Dick, the biggest problem with the Turing test was that it placed too much emphasis on intelligence,” [How To Build an Android author, David F.] Dufty writes. “Dick believed that empathy was more central to being human than intelligence, and the Turing Test did not measure empathy.” Instead, Dick imagined in Electric Sheep the “Voigt-Kampff test,” which attempts to separate machines from men by provoking emotional responses.”

Also see: The Turkle Test.

Expect more of this as social science fiction displaces hard science fiction. Culture, emotion, and identity are the raw materials out of which the new futures will be crafted.